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As a consequence, a large-scale slavery-like trade in Asian (primarily Indian and Chinese) indentured labourers began in the 1820s to fill this vacuum.

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The Chinese government also made efforts to secure the well-being of their nation's workers, with representations being made to relevant governments around the world.

Workers from China were mainly transported to work in Peru and Cuba.

During the 19th and early 20th centuries, coolie was usually a term implying an indentured labourer from South Asia, South East Asia or China.

It is now a commonly-used and inoffensive word in South Asia for workers in unskilled manual labour, especially porters at railway stations.

Seventy-five percent of the Chinese coolies in Cuba died before fulfilling their contracts.

More than two-thirds of the Chinese coolies who arrived in Peru between 18 died within the contract period.

However, over a dollar would be taken from them every month in order to pay off their debts.

British companies were the first to experiment with this potential new form of cheap labour in 1807, when they imported 200 Chinese men to work in Trinidad.

Australia began importing workers in 1848, and the United States began using them in 1865 on the First Transcontinental Railroad construction.

These workers were deceived about their terms of employment to a much greater extent than their Indian counterparts, and consequently, there was a much higher level of Chinese emigration during this period.

Much like slave plantations, there were preconceived notions of how different ethnicities worked. Just as many believed that Africans had an affinity for hard outdoor labor, Distant believed that Indian, Chinese, and Japanese Coolies were different in their ability to perform certain jobs. Those who ran estates believed that Chinese and Japanese Coolies were harder working, united, and clean.

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